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Ashleigh Smith

Nov 1
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Native American Heritage Month Banner
Chelsea Hafer Written By Chelsea Hafer

As November ushers in Native American Heritage Month, it's an opportune time to celebrate the rich cultural tapestry, traditions, and contributions of Indigenous peoples throughout the Americas. Among their many gifts to the world, one often overlooked but profoundly significant aspect is their legacy of New World crops. These have left an indelible mark on global agriculture and cuisine. The exchange of crops between the Old World and the New World—known as the Columbian Exchange—reshaped diets and agriculture on a global scale, making our culinary world far richer and more diverse.

As we delve into the legacy of New World crops during Native American Heritage Month, we embark on a journey through time and across continents. These remarkable plants, cultivated and cherished by Indigenous communities, transcended their local roots to become global culinary cornerstones. From the golden grains of maize to the fiery zest of chile peppers, each crop has a story to tell, not just of sustenance but of cultural exchange, resilience, and the transformation of cuisines worldwide. Here are 7 global crops that we can thank indigenous Americans for!

Maize (Corn)

Maize, or corn as we commonly know it, stands as one of the most iconic New World crops. Domesticated from wild teosinte grass around 8,000 years ago in Mesoamerica, maize became the foundation of Indigenous American agriculture. Unlike the sweet corn we enjoy today, Native Americans allowed maize to dry on the stalk before grinding it into flour for tortillas, cornbreads, and other staples. Maize cultivation was not only essential for nomadic tribes but also underpinned the rise of grand Mesoamerican empires like the Olmecs, Maya, Aztec, and Inca. The continuous pursuit of better corn harvests spurred innovative agricultural techniques, such as terraced fields in Peru and the Aztec's ingenious chinampas, floating island gardens.


In the intricate dance of agriculture, maize found a perfect companion in the nitrogen-fixing legume known as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Beans not only enriched the soil for maize but also provided essential proteins missing in a diet centered solely on corn. The symbiotic relationship between maize and beans created a complete protein source, fueling civilizations and tribes alike.


The "three sisters" planting strategy, featuring squash, beans, and maize, represented another stroke of agricultural brilliance. Squash, with its sprawling vines, served as a protective ground cover that conserved moisture and suppressed weed growth, benefiting both maize and beans. Squash, pumpkins, and gourds were cherished for their nutrient-rich flesh, protein-packed seeds, and sturdy shells used as containers and water vessels.


While maize was flourishing in Mesoamerica, the humble potato (Solanum tuberosum) was being cultivated high in the Andes mountains of Peru. Providing essential vitamins and protein, the potato became a staple for the Inca. It even found its way to Europe, where it formed the foundation of peasant diets and, eventually, became one of the world's most essential crops.


Originating as small wild fruits in South America, tomatoes were domesticated in Mexico around 7,000 years ago. Their journey from Aztec diets to becoming a culinary cornerstone in various cuisines exemplifies the transformative power of New World crops.

Chile Peppers

mark in Indigenous American cuisines and soon captured the taste buds of the world. Their journey from Europe to India, Asia, and Africa through Portuguese traders profoundly influenced global spice profiles.


Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), a sacred crop to the Maya and Aztec, offers a bittersweet tale. The cacao we savor today bears little resemblance to the strong, bitter concoction favored by the Aztec emperor Montezuma. It has made a remarkable journey from the upper Amazon regions of South America to the hearts and palates of people across the globe.

Indigenous agriculture is not merely a historical footnote; it's a living testament to the profound wisdom and resilience of Native American communities. For millennia, Indigenous peoples across the Americas developed sustainable and deeply interconnected agricultural systems, drawing upon the land's biodiversity, seasonal rhythms, and spiritual connections. This approach to agriculture offers valuable insights that continue to resonate with modern society.

Sustainable Practices and Biodiversity

Indigenous agriculture prioritizes sustainability. Many Native American agricultural practices are rooted in a deep understanding of local ecosystems. This includes crop diversification, where Native farmers planted a variety of crops like maize, beans, squash, and sunflowers together, as well as the cultivation of native varieties that thrived in specific regions. These practices helped maintain soil fertility, reduce the risk of crop failure, and foster a rich tapestry of biodiversity.

Modern agriculture often focuses on monoculture, which can deplete soil and rely heavily on synthetic inputs. By contrast, Indigenous agriculture promotes a holistic approach to farming that not only preserves the environment but also nurtures a diverse range of crops, including heirloom varieties that have been handed down through generations.

Cultural Significance and Spiritual Connection

Indigenous agriculture isn't just about food; it's deeply intertwined with culture and spirituality. Native American communities hold profound respect for the land, viewing it not as a commodity to exploit but as a sacred entity to cherish. Many agricultural rituals and ceremonies, such as planting and harvest celebrations, reflect this spiritual connection.

The Three Sisters planting method, in which maize, beans, and squash are grown together, exemplifies this holistic approach. It isn't merely about efficient crop growth; it's a reflection of Indigenous beliefs. Maize, beans, and squash represent the interdependence of life, echoing the interconnectedness of Native communities with their environment. These agricultural traditions impart invaluable lessons about the balance between humankind and nature.

Resilience in the Face of Adversity

Indigenous agriculture also demonstrates remarkable adaptability and resilience. Native American communities faced various challenges, including changing climates, resource limitations, and external pressures. Yet, they developed agricultural practices that could withstand these challenges. They cultivated crops capable of thriving in diverse climates and embraced agroecological techniques such as terracing, companion planting, and irrigation.

In the face of adversity, Indigenous communities often drew upon their agricultural knowledge to sustain their way of life. Today, this resilience is especially relevant as the world confronts global challenges like climate change and food security. The wisdom of Indigenous agriculture offers valuable lessons for building a sustainable and resilient future.

A Source of Wisdom for Modern Society

In a world grappling with the consequences of unsustainable agriculture, Indigenous farming practices offer a source of wisdom and guidance. The emphasis on environmental stewardship, sustainable crop diversity, and spiritual connection with the land serves as a model for addressing contemporary agricultural challenges. Many Indigenous communities continue to practice and share their agricultural wisdom, forging alliances with those who seek to cultivate a more sustainable future.

This Native American Heritage Month, let us recognize the enduring impact of Indigenous agriculture. It's a source of wisdom, a testament to resilience, and a pathway to a more sustainable and harmonious relationship with the Earth. As we celebrate Native American heritage, we can also celebrate the wisdom and insights that Indigenous agricultural practices offer to us all.

Chelsea Hafer, True Leaf Market Writer

Chelsea is a passionate advocate for sustainable agriculture and loves getting her hands dirty and watching things grow! She graduated from Georgetown University in 2022 with a degree in Environmental Justice and now resides in Park City, Utah, where she works as a ski instructor. Her love for nature extends to gardening and hiking, and she has gained valuable insights from working on farms in Italy, Hawaii, and Mexico, learning various sustainable agriculture techniques like permaculture and Korean Natural Farming.

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Sylvia Lea Edwards

So many of the foods and dishes eaten in this country as staples without the domestication of so many native crops. Grew up eating potatoes, beans, growing tomatoes as a normal thing. And cannot forget chocolate, I have a little of that every day.

Gay Jacobsen

I’m deeply moved by this article and these two women’s lives. Thank you being out there. 💕

Junior Allen

Chelsea , many would like to be called First Nation.

Beth Huffnagle

Loved your article. We as a people so easily forget the past and the importance of the knowledge we’ve gained from the past.

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